Cardiac Tamponade

Today we look at one of medical conditions that affects the heart.What is cardiac tamponade ?It’s a medical emergency,a condition in which the heart is compressed by accumulated fluid or blood lbetween heart muscles(myocardium and its outer layer(pericardium)

This pressurizes the heart and its arteries /veins resulting in reduced oxygen supply to the heart muscles,reduced venous blood return to the heart chambers and reduced blood and oxygen supply to the whole body.

Causes include:Auto immune diseases,chest trauma,accidental perforation to the heart during chest invasive procedures,heart diseases

Symptoms include anxiety, confusion, low blood pressure, fainting & dizzyness,chest pain that radiates to the neck,extended neck veins due to difficulties in venous blood return

Diagnostic procedures include CT scan,Magnetic resonance,ECG.Chest Xray shows globe shaped heart,other tests may be performed.

Patients management :To educate the patient regarding his/her condition, aim of medications and procedures like pericardiocentesis(Fluid draining),removing part of pericardium,thorecotomy and others.

Giving of oxygen,fowlers position,monitoring of ECG to detect out cardiac ischeamia,oxygen saturation,monitoring urine output as reduced cardiac output can lead to low kidneys perfusion.

Giving medications as prescribed including those that will raise patient”s blood pressure

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